Bottom Row

This lesson introduces about most of the remainder of the keyboard: the bottom row of the keyboard and the two other vowels.

The keys used in this lesson include those used in lesson 2, as well as:

  • SKWR O E RBGS
  • 1234 5 5 4321

The numbers show the fingers for each key, where 1's are the pinkies and 5 are the thumbs.

STKPWHRAOEUFRPBLGTS

The left S key on the bottom row is the same S key as on the top row. S is so common in English at the start of words that it's useful to have it on both rows.

The Vowels O and E

The O key alone represents the sound in "hop" and not "hope".

The E key alone represents the sound in "red" and not "reed".

Sometimes, in Plover theory, we revert to spelling. You will see this in the upcoming brief table. For example, though "he" is pronounced with a tense "ee" sound, it is a common word and can just be stroked with HE.

Briefs

Now that we know most of the keyboard, there are many possible briefs to form.

Chord Translation Notes
R- or -R are Either side works.
SKP- and This stroke is arbitrary, remember it by hand shape.
AEU a This is the word "a
K- can
W- with Many people use "w" as an abbreviation for "with".
-B be The letter "B" is a homophone to "be"
HE or just E he Spelling instead of phonetic.
SHE she Spelling instead of phonetic.
WE we Spelling instead of phonetic.
SO so Spelling instead of phonetic.
TO to Spelling instead of phonetic.
OR or Spelling instead of phonetic.
KW-BG {,} Comma.

*Notice that {} are used to denote a special character in Plover's translation format.

How to Practice

It might be valuable for you to write down or print briefs that you have trouble remembering. Some stenographers find it helpful to say the raw in their head as a mnemonic. For example, you might see SKP for "and", and think "skuhpah" as you stroke it to help remember the keys.

Others like to imagine the shapes of the chords, thinking of SKP as a ramp heading up on the left-hand side of the keyboard.

Finally, often building muscle memory is crucial for writing fast. Try drilling the brief in the middle of a sentence, get used to moving your hands in and out of that brief's shape. SKP/HA/SKP/PAP/SKP/SAT/SKP/HAT.

Practice

Do your best to not refer to the charts all the time. Eventually you will need to go without them. Sometimes you can figure out the meaning of an outline based on the context of a sentence.

The skill of recognizing words based on context is helpful for advanced stenographers who may need to dissect a word that they wrote incorrectly and find what they meant.

1. Translate

Write the English sentence represented by these outlines, including punctuation.

  1. -T KAT SKP -T PUG R UP TP-PL
  2. ROL TO -T TOP TP-PL
  3. RUB -T SOFT PUG SKP -T KAT TP-PL
  4. WE H TO STOP -T KAR AT -T KURB TP-PL
  5. AEU KRAB K KUT US H-F
  6. U K -B AEU STAR TP-PL
  7. W AEU TOP HAT U K -B HOT TP-PL
  8. HUF KW-BG PUF KW-BG SKP STOP TP-PL
  9. T S AEU KUT -F -T RUG TP-PL

If you ever can't read an outline, you can try writing it into your steno machine with Plover running to see what it translates to.

2. Find Outlines

Find steno outlines that will write these English sentences, including punctuation.

  1. Huff, puff, and start.
  2. Cut up the rag.
  3. Hug a wet rat.
  4. Tug at the straps.
  5. You had a skull.
  6. You are a star of sorts.
  7. Is it a worse cut?

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