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-F as -s

Special thanks to Thomas Pacheco for funding this lesson.

This lesson covers how to substitute -F on the right hand for "s" in words like "fast", "mask", and "schism".

Because of steno order, -S is very near the end of the layout. That means that we can't write words like "fast" because TPATS is "fats". In order to circumvent steno order, we substitute the -F key for the "s" sound, which might sound like someone speaking with a lisp. So to get "fast", we write TPAFT. We do this whenever we have words ending in -sp, -sk, -sn, -ses, -st, and -sed.

  • PHOFT: most
  • SKWRUFT: just
  • TPAFT: fast
  • HREUFP: lisp
  • PHAFBG: mask
  • REUFBG: risk
  • TRUFT: trust
  • TPAFPB: fasten
  • PWAOFT: boost
  • KAFL: castle
  • SPAFPL: spasm
  • PHAFTS: masts
  • SKEUFPL: schism
  • TKPWHRAFS: glasses
  • KHRAFS: classes
  • PHEUFD: missed
  • KEUFD: kissed
  • KEUFG: kissing

Now you have learned that the -F key is used for "f", "v", and sometimes "s". It's a pretty busy key and sometimes there are phonetic conflicts that you need to resolve. For now, look at all the ways that you can use this key:

  • WAFT: waft
  • WAEUFT: waist
  • WAFD: waved

*S for -st

Plover Theory prefers using -FT for -st in most cases. However, there are times when you need the -FT for something else. In these cases, we use a traditional StenEd -st which is *S:


Most words ending in -st in Plover can be written with both *S and -FT:

  • PHOEFT: most (Plover Theory)
  • PHO*ES: most (StenEd)

But there are a few exception that you will have to memorize:

  • TPO*RS: forest
  • HROFT: lot of
    • HRO*S: lost
    • HRO*FT: loft
  • HREUFT: lift
    • HR*EUS: list
  • PHUFL: muffle
    • PH*UFL: muscle
Chord Translation Notes
TPEURS first Easier than TPEUFRT or TP*EURS
EUTS its Possessive "it"

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